An FDA Filing for Momenta’s Adalimumab Biosimilar Coming Soon?

Momenta seems to be in final preparations for its first 351(k) filing to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In its recent investor conference, the company disclosed that it is ready to send M923, its adalimumab biosimilar, to the agency for approval.

Momenta's Adalimumab Biosimilar
Craig Wheeler, CEO of Momenta Pharmaceuticals

Despite this promising news, Momenta is facing strong headwinds. Even if it gains approval, Momenta expects that the US launch of the adalimumab biosimilar will not occur until 2023, owing to pending patent issues with Abbvie’s Humira®. The company does not yet have a marketing partner for this agent, though there appears to be plenty of time.

In addition, Momenta received a setback in November 2017 on another looming biosimilar candidate, when its biosimilar version of abatacept failed its phase 1 trial. Apparently, its M834 produced pharmacokinetic results that differed from the originator Orencia® in this early clinical study. Momenta is still studying the data and trying to come to grips with the surprising findings.

The company is also set to begin “pivotal” clinical trials on its other drug candidate M710, a biosimilar to aflibercept. The originator product is Eylea®, and it is indicated to treat wet age-related macular degeneration.

Momenta’s partnership with Mylan is moving forward with preclinical work on four other nonspecified biosimilars, according to the company. But all of this development costs money, and Momenta has acknowledged that it may need to raise cash for future development.

Momenta received approval in January for a generic form of the multiple sclerosis drug Copaxone® (glatiramer acetate). The approval of this agent, produced in partnership with Sandoz, had been delayed because of manufacturing issues. The company recognizes that the entry of Mylan (ironically) into this market may hinder its financial outlook.

As a result of these developments, Momenta stated it would entertain a sale of its adalimumab biosimilar “or other assets.”

 

The Patent Games: Another Sequel Underway

Roche/Genentech has filed suit in Delaware, citing the alleged violation of 37 patents by Amgen in its intent to market its biosimilar version of Herceptin®.  

The litigation was filed in response to Amgen’s stated intention of launching their product in October 2018, based on a May approval. Unfortunately, the Food and Drug Administration decided not to approve Amgen and Allergan’s initial 351(k) application in early June.

Roche has been engaged with Pfizer and the team of Celltrion and Teva on their trastuzumab biosimilars as well.

Trastuzumab Dosing May Be Given in Half the Time: Will Costs/Revenues Be Cut as Well?

An upcoming presentation at the annual American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) meeting promises equal efficacy and much improved safety for patients with early-stage breast cancer receiving Herceptin®. This change in trastuzumab dosing from a 12-month to a 6-month regimen will have ramifications for patients, health systems, and manufacturers.

trastuzumab biosimilarA number of biosimilar drug makers are trying to be the first to enter the market for trastuzumab. Mylan/Biocon’s Ogivri™ (trastuzumab-dkst) is the only approved agent in the US, but it will not launch before 2019, owing to a licensing agreement with Roche. Amgen/Allergan is expecting word from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) by May 28th on their own biosimilar version. Samsung Bioepis is also expecting a decision in the fourth quarter of this year. This new study could significantly lower anticipated revenues for these drug makers. The expected pricing pressures of the category (another 2 manufacturers are working through complete response letters from the FDA) will further add to lower revenue.

Trastuzumab Study Results: Half as Long Just as Good

This British study comprised over 4,000 women (median age, 56 yr) who were followed for more than five years. Patients were randomized to receive the originator trastuzumab for either six or 12 months, in addition to usual standard of care. The researchers found that the disease-free survival was 89.8% in the 12-month group compared with 89.4% for the 6-month group. However, the latter showed significantly fewer toxic effects of cancer therapy.

The wholesale acquisition cost for trastuzumab approaches $6,400 per month ($76,700 per 12-mo course). This may lower patients’ out-of-pocket costs, depending on how quickly they reach their cost-sharing maximums. Typically, women taking trastuzumab will be subject to a fixed copay (e.g., $300 per treatment) or a co-insurance (e.g., 20% or $1,280 per month) for this medication alone. Yet, even with the treatment duration being halved, some patients may reach their out-of-pocket maximums. This is the result of office visits, other medications to be taken, and other care related to the toxic side effects of chemotherapy.

Half the Duration but not Half the Costs

For payers and health systems, cost savings will be substantial, but not halved. Most of the costs will be incurred with the first 4 months of weekly therapy. After 12 to 18 weeks, treatments are stretched out to infusions every 3 weeks for the remainder of the regimen. For a 100-kg woman who would receive a total of 5,400 mg of trastuzumab over 52 weeks, this could be reduced to 3,666 mg over 26 weeks (–32%).

The real benefit, should these study results pass scrutiny of peer review and inclusion in practice guidelines, will be in the lower frequency of toxic adverse effects. According to its prescribing information, trastuzumab is associated with “left ventricular cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias, hypertension, disabling 197 cardiac failure, cardiomyopathy, and cardiac death.” This can occur during therapy (causing discontinuation) or in the years after treatment is completed.

We hope that the good news represented by these study results for patients does not dissuade other manufacturers from seeking biosimilar trastuzumab approval.

FDA Hands Sandoz a Rejection on Its Rituximab Biosimilar

Sandoz announced today that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has decided not to approve its biosimilar version of the oncology biosimilar rituximab. The content of the complete response letter was not revealed by Sandoz.

This marks the second rituximab biosimilar rejected by the FDA. Celltrion and Teva’s Truxima™ was also rejected in early April. Both Sandoz’s biosimilar (Rixathon™) and Truxima™ are marketed in Europe and in other parts of the globe. In Europe, Rixathon was approved in June 2017, and Truxima received marketing authorization in February of that year.

Although the European approval for Rixathon was for all of Rituxan/MabThera’s oncology and autoimmune indications, Sandoz was seeking oncology indications only in the US with its rituximab biosimilar.

Sandoz registered early success with filgrastim (Zarxio®) and etanercept (Erelzi®), but was handed a set back from FDA on its biosimilar pegfilgrastim. We’ll report any updates we receive on Sandoz’s progress in resolving the issues in question with rituximab.

Next up is the Allergan/Amgen biosimilar of trastuzumab, which has an FDA PDUFA date of May 28.

Pfizer Receives FDA Rejection on Trastuzumab, Next up Is Amgen/Allergan

When Pfizer announced that it received a complete response letter from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the wait for an available biosimilar to Herceptin® just got longer. According to the manufacturer, the FDA specified that the reasons for the rejection of PF-05280014 were not related to clinical questions. The rejection was not associated with manufacturing plant problems, which have tripped up biosimilar manufacturers, including Pfizer, in the past. Instead, the FDA cited the need for additional data related to “technical issues.”

The next potential team up at bat for a trastuzumab biosimilar approval is Amgen and Allergan. A decision on their biosimilar should be rendered before the end of the second quarter. To date, only Mylan/Biocon have obtained approval on this oncologic product (Ogivri™). However, the launch has been delayed by their signing an agreement with Roche, the maker of the reference product. Teva/Celltrion had received a rejection from FDA relating to manufacturing issues in early April, setting back their own marketing timetable.

Even if Pfizer did receive approval at this time, Roche had sued the company in November 2017 for patent infringement. Pfizer had elected to launch at risk with Inflectra®, despite looming legal battles with Janssen over Remicade®, so an immediate launch of their trastuzumab biosimilar could not be ruled out.

Like the situation with pegfilgrastim, gaining competition for trastuzumab is proving frustrating for payers. Obviously, it will occur, but the latest news does not alleviate payers concerns over price increases in the oncology area.

Teva and Celltrion Receive Rejections on Trastuzumab and Rituximab Biosimilars

Celltrion and its partner Mylan were dealt a significant blow today, as the Korean manufacturer announced that the latest two biosimilar candidates were rejected by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Celltrion logo1As first reported by Dan Stanton in the Biopharma Reporter, the FDA issued complete response letters as a result of inspection problems uncovered at Celltrion’s manufacturing facility in Incheon, Korea. Celltrion initially receive the negative inspection report in January of this year, which highlighted deficiencies in aseptic practices and processing, and failure to investigate variations in batches.Teva

Under the partners’ pact, signed in 2016, Teva would commercialize the two biosimilars. Teva has a separate concern, however, in that the same Celltrion plant cited by the FDA has been tabbed to produce its CGRP-inhibitor fremanezumab for migraine prevention. This migraine prevention antibody, which also has the potential to reach sales of $1 billion, has a PDUFA date of mid-June.

In a statement published by Mr. Stanton, a Celltrion spokesperson said, “Celltrion is making progress addressing the concerns raised by the FDA in a Warning Letter issued in January and is committed to working with the agency to fully resolve all outstanding issues with the highest priority and urgency.”

The issuance of the CRLs may be extremely poor timing for the partners. Although Mylan signed an agreement with Roche to delay the launch of its approved biosimilar version of Herceptin® until at least 2019, the other competitors have not. Amgen/Allergan expect word on their 351(k) submission within the month, and Samsung Bioepis should hear in the fourth quarter. On the rituximab front, Sandoz should receive word early in the third quarter.

Fourth Herceptin® Biosimilar Being Evaluated by FDA

The end of 2017 has been bustling with oncology biosimilar news.

On December 20, 2017, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepted Samsung Bioepis’ application for SB3, its biosimilar version of trastuzumab. The drug would be the fourth to undergo evaluation by the FDA, and may pack on the pressure for Mylan and Biocon’s product Ogivri, which is the only approved biosimilar trastuzumab.

Mylan/Biocon’s biosimilar was approved earlier this month. As a reminder, though, there are no plans to bring their version of trastuzumab to market immediately. Indications are that Breast Cancerowing to an agreement with Roche, they may not launch until 2019 (at the earliest). Trastuzumab biosimilar entries by Celltrion and Amgen/Allergan will not receive FDA decisions until the second quarter of next year. It is unclear whether these manufacturers will decide to launch their versions at risk, thus stealing the initiative from Mylan and its partner. In any case, competition should be vigorous when these products launch (which should be within 12 months of the first launch, assuming FDA approvals). At present, the question is open as to whether Samsung will market SB3 if it receives a positive decision sometime in the fourth quarter of 2018.

In related news…A survey of 200 oncologists revealed that their comfort levels with prescribing biosimilars is widespread. Cardinal Health published a report based on the survey on December 20.

Although these result may relate to oncologists’ multiyear experience with Zarxio® (filgrastim), 82% of the oncologists responding to the survey specifically indicated that they would have no qualms about using biosimilars to treat patients with breast cancer in an adjuvant setting or if they had metastatic disease. As indicated above, no biosimilars are currently marketed for this indication. Furthermore, they expect significant cost savings when using biosimilars: Two thirds said that cost savings with biosimilars are either extremely or very important in their prescribing decision. That’s pretty much the point of biosimilars, isn’t it?

Fuzzy Patent Logic

Over the past week, month, year (you name it!), we’ve read too much about the trials and tribulations of patent litigation. The latest, involving Pfizer and Roche, has the latter suing Pfizer for infringing on upwards of 40 Roche patents in Pfizer’s development of a trastuzumab biosimilar. This is pretty common these days, and even the number of patents involved fails to surprise. Yet, other competitors may reach the market before Pfizer; it has not yet filed for a 351(k) approval with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or the European Medicines Agency.

BR&R Logo Transparent1.5-21-2017

This does not apply to other potential players. Celltrion cleared the Roche patent lawsuits in April 2017, enabling it to sell its trastuzumab biosimilar in its home country of Korea. This does not necessarily apply to sales in other countries, however.

Positive results were announced for a pivotal phase 3 study of Pfizer’s trastuzumab biosimilar PF-05280014 in Europe in September. These results will likely form the clinical backbone of its 351(k) application.

First launched in 1998, principal patent expiration of Herceptin in the US should be 2018 or 2019 and was 2014 in Europe. It may be assumed that Amgen/Allergan will wait for patent expiration before marketing their product in the US and subsist on sales in Europe in the meantime.

A similar but more protracted situation exists with Abbvie’s Humira®, for which competition will be fierce once the patents expire fully in 2023 (if they are not found to be invalid earlier). Amgen settled with Abbvie to obtain a global license from the originator’s manufacturer, applying to sales after this time. However, Amgen’s biosimilar will still have to compete with severals once the patents expire or are ruled invalid.

I’d like to post others’ opinions as to how the marketshare wars will play out when some patent agreements are made and others are not. What do you think will happen on the Herceptin front?

Amgen/Allergan Score Positive EMA Evaluation, but Launch Will Be Delayed

A couple of noteworthy pieces of news have emerged from across the pond on the biosimilar front. The first involves progress for Amgen’s application for its bevacizumab biosimilar at the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Its drug evaluation arm, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use, recommended approval of the biosimilar on November 9.

Assuming EMA final approval is received, however, Amgen and Allergan’s cancer treatment agent will not be marketed any time soon. The principal European patent is not set to expire until 2022.

Image result for avastin biosimilarIn the US, Mvasi™ was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in September, but its launch is similarly delayed by patent litigation. The main US patents should expire in 2019 (Roche claims to hold 27 enforceable patents). Amgen had filed suit October 6 challenging the validity of the patents in question, but this case may not be heard until late 2018. Amgen has the option of launching “at-risk,” but it has not indicated that it will go this route. Otherwise, the earliest launch may be sometime in 2019.

Several other potential bevacizumab makers have already challenged the patents, according to other reports. These include Boehringer Ingelheim, CelltrionPfizer, and Samsung Bioepis.

In other related news…An announcement will be made on November 20 regarding where the EMA will relocate its headquarters as a result of the Brexit. The Agency will need to complete its move by March 31, 2019, when Britain’s divorce from the European Union is finalized.

Amgen Receives Approval for Bevacizumab Biosimilar

The Food and Drug Administration announced today the approval of the first biosimilar for Roche’s Avastin®. The approval of Mvasi™ (bevacizumab-awwb) represents the first biosimilar approved in the US for the direct treatment of cancer. Amgen is partnered with Allergan in the development and marketing of the new biosimilar.

Its approved indications include:

  • Metastatic colorectal cancer, in combination with intravenous 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy for first- or second-line treatment. Mvasi is not indicated for the adjuvant treatment of surgically resected colorectal cancer.
  • Metastatic colorectal cancer, in combination with fluoropyrimidine-irinotecan- or fluoropyrimidine-oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy for the second-line treatment of patients who have progressed on a first-line bevacizumab product-containing regimen. Mvasi is not indicated for the adjuvant treatment of surgically resected colorectal cancer.
  • Non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer, in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel for first line treatment of unresectable, locally advanced, recurrent or metastatic disease.
  • Glioblastoma with progressive disease following prior therapy, based on improvement in objective response rate. No data is available demonstrating improvement in disease-related symptoms or survival with bevacizumab products.
  • Metastatic renal cell carcinoma, in combination with interferon alfa.
  • Cervical cancer that is persistent, recurrent, or metastatic, in combination with paclitaxel and cisplatin or paclitaxel and topotecan.

Like Avastin, Mvasi will carry a black box warning involving gastrointestinal perforations, surgery and wound healing problems, and severe or fatal hemorrhage.

The FDA’s Oncology Advisory Committee had unanimously recommended approval of the agent. No announcement was made by Amgen as to pricing or availability of the new product.

Two New Trastuzumab Biosimilars Submitted for FDA Approval

The team of Mylan and Biocon may have some company in the biosimilar competition for Herceptin® (trastuzumab). Two additional partnerships announced the filing of their 351(k) applications for trastuzumab biosimilars.

Amgen and Allergan are hoping ABP 980 will have smooth sailing through the approval system. The phase 3 study in patients with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer was completed in January 2017, with study results reported in July 2016. This study enrolled 725 patients, and yielded positive results in terms of safety, efficacy, and similarity to the originator product.

Celltrion submitted their product application for CT-P6 (Herzuma™) to the FDA on July 30 as well. Its partner Teva will distribute and market the product in the US, upon approval. The phase 3 study for this product is ongoing, but the results of the primary outcome data from 549 patients were published in June 2017. The outcomes were found to be similar to those of Herceptin.

Mylan and Biocon had submitted their biosimilar version on November 1, 2016. The FDA Advisory Committee reviewing their product gave it their unanimous support on July 13, and the final FDA decision is expected by September 3, 2017. If approved, Mylan will have at least a 9-month time advantage to get their foot in the door of a $2.6 billion trastuzumab marketplace.

This sets up a very interesting pricing dynamic. I had originally thought that this scenario might occur first with adalimumab after the patent litigation was resolved, but it is very possible that multiple biosimilars for trastuzumab may be launched first and in a very short timeframe.

Assuming Mylan gets the nod from FDA first, they have a couple of obvious paths they can travel: (1) launch with a substantial discount in an attempt to capture as much marketshare as possible before the other market entrants arrive or (2) launch with a modest (but attractive) discount in an effort to maximize their revenue while their product remains the sole biosimilar available. It will then be a guessing game as to how Amgen/Allergan and Celltrion/Teva play their turns in this poker game. With sudden market competition, such as their launches could potentially pose, payers may play a bit of a waiting game themselves, to see where the chips fall.